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Frederick vom Saal

Curators’ Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Biological Sciences
PhD, 1976 Rutgers University

Email: vomsaalf@missouri.edu
Office: 105 Lefevre Hall
Phone: 573-356-9621
Additional: Google-Scholar
Headshot of Frederick vom Saal

Research

Research summary

Effects of estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals on fetal development

Research description

Research in my laboratory concerns the effects on fetal development of endogenous sex hormones, naturally occurring estrogenic chemicals in food, (such as phytoestrogens in soy), and estrogenic manmade chemicals in consumer products (such as bisphenol A in plastic). We collect fetal mouse reproductive tissues and use primary mouse and human cell culture to investigate cellular mechanisms that mediate responses to hormones and other chemicals. We have confirm observations from in vivo experiments using mice. An important aspect of this research is that we use a physiologically based approach to determine the doses of chemicals that we examine. This approach has led to findings that fetal tissues are extremely sensitive to much lower doses of endogenous estradiol and manmade estrogenic chemicals than had previously been appreciated.

Select Publications

Select Publications

Vom Saal, F.S. Flaws in design, execution and interpretation limit CLARITY-BPA’s value for risk assessments of bisphenol A (2019) Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, .DOI: 10.1111/bcpt.13195

Cleary, J.A., Tillitt, D.E., vom Saal, F.S., Nicks, D.K., Claunch, R.A., Bhandari, R.K. Atrazine induced transgenerational reproductive effects in medaka (Oryzias latipes) (2019) Environmental Pollution, 251, pp. 639-650. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.05.013

Taylor, J.A., Shioda, K., Mitsunaga, S., Yawata, S., Angle, B.M., Nagel, S.C., vom Saal, F.S., Shioda, T. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol a disrupts naturally occurring bimodal DNA methylation at proximal promoter of fggy, an obesity-relevant gene encoding a carbohydrate kinase, in gonadal white adipose tissues of CD-1 Mice (2018) Endocrinology, 159 (2), pp. 779-794. DOI: 10.1210/en.2017-00711

Nicholson, T.M., Nguyen, J.L., Leverson, G.E., Taylor, J.A., Vom Saal, F.S., Wood, R.W., Ricke, W.A. Endocrine disruptor bisphenol A is implicated in urinary voiding dysfunction in male mice (2018) American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology, 315 (5), pp. F1208-F1216. DOI: 10.1152/ajprenal.00582.2017

Taylor, J.A., Sommerfeld-Sager, J.M., Meng, C.-X., Nagel, S.C., Shioda, T., Vom Saal, F.S. Reduced body weight at weaning followed by increased post-weaning growth rate interacts with part-per-trillion fetal serum concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) to impair glucose tolerance in male mice (2018) PLoS ONE, 13 (12), art. no. e0208846, .DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208846

vom Saal, F.S., Parmigiani, S., Palanza, P., Bhandari, R.K. Transgenerational Effects on Fertility of Estrogenic Chemicals in Fish. In: F. Ruggiu, Editor, Proceedings of Conference: International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies, 51st Session, Erice, Sicily, August, 2018, World Scientific Publishers, Singapore, 2019

vom Saal, F.S. The intrauterine position phenomenon. Encyclopedia of Reproduction, Elsevier, London, 2018.

Ricke, W.A, Timms, B.G.. and vom Saal, F.S. Developmental and adult anatomy of the prostate in humans and rodents. Encyclopedia of Reproduction, Elsevier, London, 2018.

vom Saal, F.S. and Welshons, W.V. Estrogen agonists. Encyclopedia of Reproduction, Elsevier, London, 2018.

Heindel, J.J., Blumberg, B., Cave, M., Machtinger, R., Mantovani, A., Mendez, M.A., Nadal, A., Palanza, P., Panzica, G., Sargis, R., Vandenberg, L.N., vom Saal, F. Metabolism disrupting chemicals and metabolic disorders(2017) Reproductive Toxicology, 68, pp. 3-33.

Vandenberg, L.N., Blumberg, B., Antoniou, M.N., Benbrook, C.M., Carroll, L., Colborn, T., Everett, L.G., Hansen, M., Landrigan, P.J., Lanphear, B.P., Mesnage, R., vom Saal, F.S., Welshons, W.V., Myers, J.P. Is it time to reassess current safety standards for glyphosate-based herbicides? (2017) Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 71 (6), pp. 613-618.

Jandegian, C.M., Deem, S.L., Bhandari, R.K., Holliday, C.M., Nicks, D., Rosenfeld, C.S., Selcer, K.W., Tillitt, D.E., vom Saal, F.S., Vélez-Rivera, V., Yang, Y., Holliday, D.K. Corrigendum to “Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta)” [Gen. Comp. Endocr. 216 (2015) 77–85] (S0016648015000933) (10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.04.003) (2017) General and Comparative Endocrinology, 247, p. 223.

Heindel, J.J., Vom Saal, F.S., Blumberg, B., Bovolin, P., Calamandrei, G., Ceresini, G., Cohn, B.A., Fabbri, E., Gioiosa, L., Kassotis, C., Legler, J., La Merrill, M., Rizzi, L., Machtinger, R., Mantovani, A., Mendez, M.A., Montanini, L., Molteni, L., Nagel, S.C., Parmigiani, S., Panzica, G., Paterlini, S., Pomatto, V., Ruzzin, J., Sartor, G., Schug, T.T., Street, M.E., Suvorov, A., Volpi, R., Zoeller, R.T., Palanza, P. Correction to: Parma consensus statement on metabolic disruptors (Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source (2015) 14:1 (54) DOI: 10.1186/s12940-015-0042-7) (2017) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, 16 (1), art. no. 130, .DOI: 10.1186/s12940-017-0343-0

Heindel, J.J., Palanza, P. Parmigiani, S. and vom Saal, F.S. Increasing Incidence of Disease in Global Populations Across the Lifespan and Generations: Key Role of Environmental Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. In: F. Ruggiu, Editor, Proceedings of Conference: International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies, 50th Session, Erice, Sicily, August, 2017, World Scientific Publishers, Singapore, 2018.

Nicholson, T.M., Nguyen, J., Leverson, G.E., Taylor, J.A., vom Saal, F,S,, Wood, R.W. and Ricke, R.W. The endocrine disruptor Bisphenol-A is implicated in urinary voiding dysfunction in male mice. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.315: F1208–F1216, 2018.

Stahlhut, R.W., Taylor, J.A. Nadal, A. Myers, J.P. Dyer, J.A. and vom Saal, F.S. Experimental BPA Exposure and Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Response in Adult Men and Women. J. Endo. Soc. 2(10):1173-1187, 2018. doi: 10.1210/js.2018-00151

vom Saal, F.S., Palanza, P. and Parmigiani, P. Disruption of development by environmental chemicals and psycho-social stress. In: R. C. Ragaini, Editor, Proceedings of Conference: International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies, 49th Session,Erice, Sicily, August, 2016, World Scientific Publishers, Singapore, 2017.

Denninghoff, J.S. and vom Saal, F.S. Sources of contaminants in the home: indoor air quality and human health. In: Integrative Environmental Health, Editors: A. Cohen and F.S. vom Saal, Oxford University Press, London, p 67-85, 2017.

Cohen, A. and vom Saal, F.S., Editors. Integrative Environmental Health. Oxford University Press, London, 2017. ISBN-13: 978-0190490911

Myers JP, Antoniou MN, Blumberg B, Carroll L, Colborn T, Everett LG, Hansen M, Landrigan PJ, Lanphear BP, Mesnage R et al: Concerns over use of glyphosate-based herbicides and risks associated with exposures: A consensus statement. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 2016, 15(1).

Palanza P, Nagel SC, Parmigiani S, vom Saal FS: Perinatal exposure to endocrine disruptors: Sex, timing and behavioral endpoints. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 2016, 7:69-75.

Stahlhut RW, van Breemen RB, Gerona RR, Taylor JA, Welshons WV, Vom Saal FS: Comment on “Optimal exposure biomarkers for nonpersistent chemicals in environmental epidemiology”. Environmental Health Perspectives 2016, 124(4):A66.

Vom Saal FS, Welshons WV: Endocrine disruptors: Manmade and natural oestrogens: Opposite effects on assisted reproduction. Nature Reviews Endocrinology 2016, 12(5):251-252.

Vandenberg, L.N., Gerona, R.R., Kannan, K., Taylor, J.A., Van Breemen, R.B., Dickenson, C.A., Liao, C., Yuan, Y., Newbold, R.R., Padmanabhan, V., Vom Saal, F.S., Woodruff, T.J. Erratum: A round robin approach to the analysis of bisphenol a (BPA) in human blood samples (2016) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, 15 (1), art. no. 126, .

Vom Saal, F.S. Triennial Reproduction Symposium: Environmental programming of reproduction during fetal life: Effects of intrauterine position and the endocrine disrupting chemical bisphenol A (2016) Journal of Animal Science, 94 (7), pp. 2722-2736.

Trasande, L., Vandenberg, L.N., Bourguignon, J.-P., Myers, J.P., Slama, R., vom Saal, F., Zoeller, R.T. Peer-reviewed and unbiased research, rather than 'sound science', should be used to evaluate endocrine-disrupting chemicals (2016) Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 70 (11), pp. 1051-1056.

Schug, T.T., Johnson, A.F., Birnbaum, L.S., Colborn, T., Guillette, L.J., Crews, D.P., Collins, T., Soto, A.M., Vom Saal, F.S., McLachlan, J.A., Sonnenschein, C., Heindel, J.J. Minireview: Endocrine disruptors: Past lessons and future directions (2016) Molecular Endocrinology, 30 (8), pp. 833-847.

VandeVoort, C.A., Gerona, R.R., Vom Saal, F.S., Tarantal, A.F., Hunt, P.A., Hillenweck, A., Zalko, D. Maternal and fetal pharmacokinetics of oral radiolabeled and authentic bisphenol a in the rhesus monkey (2016) PLoS ONE, 11 (12), art. no. e0165410,

Myers, J.P., Antoniou, M., Blumberg, B., Carroll, L., Colborn, T., Everett, L.G., Hansen, M., Landrigan, P.J., Lanphear, B.P., Mesnage, R., Vandenberg, L.N., vom Saal, F.S., Welshons, W.V. and Benbrook,C.M. Concerns over use of glyphosate-based herbicides and risks associated with exposures: a consensus statement. Environmental Health 15:19, 2016. DOI: 10.1186/s12940-016-0117-0

vom Saal, F.S. Endocrine disrupting chemicals threaten fetal health. In: Thomas Berry in Italy: Reflections on Spirituality and Sustainability. Edited by Ferrero, Pacem in Terris Press, 99-114, 2016.

vom Saal, F.S, Environmental programming of reproduction during fetal life: Effects of intrauterine position and the endocrine disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA). J. Anim. Sci. 94:1–15, 2016. DOI: 10.2527/jas2015-0211

Thaddeus T. Schug, Anne F. Johnson, Linda S. Birnbaum, Theo Colborn, Louis J. Guillette, Jr., David Crews, Terry Collins, Ana M. Soto, Frederick S. vom Saal, John A. McLachlan, Carlos Sonnenschein and Jerrold J. Heindel. Endocrine Disruptors: Past Lessons and Future Directions. Molecular Endocrinology, 30:833-847, 2016.

Heindel, J.J., Blumberg, B., Cave, M., Machtinger, R., Mantovani, A., Mendez, M.A., Nadal, A., Palanza, P., Panzica, G., Sargis, R., Vandenberg, L.N., vom Saal, F.S. Metabolism Disrupting Chemicals and Metabolic Disorders. Reproductive Toxicology, Online October 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2016.10.001

Bhandari RK, Deem SL, Holliday DK, Jandegian CM, Kassotis CD, Nagel SC, Tillitt DE, vom Saal FS, Rosenfeld CS: Effects of the environmental estrogenic contaminants bisphenol A and 17α-ethinyl estradiol on sexual development and adult behaviors in aquatic wildlife species. General and Comparative Endocrinology 2015, 214:195-219.

Bhandari RK, Vom Saal FS, Tillitt DE: Transgenerational effects from early developmental exposures to bisphenol A or 17α-ethinylestradiol in medaka, Oryzias latipes. Scientific Reports 2015, 5.

Gioiosa L, Palanza P, Parmigiani S, Vom Saal FS: Risk evaluation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals: Effects of developmental exposure to low doses of bisphenol a on behavior and physiology in mice (Mus musculus). Dose-Response 2015, 13(4).

Heindel JJ, Vom Saal FS, Blumberg B, Bovolin P, Calamandrei G, Ceresini G, Cohn BA, Fabbri E, Gioiosa L, Kassotis C et al: Parma consensus statement on metabolic disruptors. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 2015, 14(1).

Jandegian CM, Deem SL, Bhandari RK, Holliday CM, Nicks D, Rosenfeld CS, Selcer KW, Tillitt DE, vom Saal FS, Vélez-Rivera V et al: Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta). General and Comparative Endocrinology 2015, 216:77-85.

Kassotis CD, Alvarez DA, Taylor JA, vom Saal FS, Nagel SC, Tillitt DE: Characterization of Missouri surface waters near point sources of pollution reveals potential novel atmospheric route of exposure for bisphenol A and wastewater hormonal activity pattern. Science of the Total Environment 2015, 524-525:384-393.

Oreskes N, Carlat D, Mann ME, Thacker PD, Vom Saal FS: Viewpoint: Why Disclosure Matters. Environmental Science and Technology 2015, 49(13):7527-7528.

Palanza, P., Nagel, S.C., Parmigiani, S. and vom Saal, F.S. Prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors (sex, timing and behavioral endpoints). Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences. 7:69-75, 2015. DOI: org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2015.11.017

Vom Saal FS, Vandevoort CA, Taylor JA, Welshons WV, Toutain PL, Hunt PA: Bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics with daily oral bolus or continuous exposure via silastic capsules in pregnant rhesus monkeys: Relevance for human exposures. Reproductive Toxicology 2014, 45:105-116.

Vandenberg LN, Gerona RR, Kannan K, Taylor JA, Van Breemen RB, Dickenson CA, Liao C, Yuan Y, Newbold RR, Padmanabhan V et al: A round robin approach to the analysis of bisphenol a (BPA) in human blood samples. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 2014, 13(1).

Hormann AM, Vom Saal FS, Nagel SC, Stahlhut RW, Moyer CL, Ellersieck MR, Welshons WV, Toutain PL, Taylor JA: Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA). PLoS ONE 2014, 9(10).

Lathi RB, Liebert CA, Brookfield KF, Taylor JA, Vom Saal FS, Fujimoto VY, Baker VL: Conjugated bisphenol A in maternal serum in relation to miscarriage risk. Fertility and Sterility 2014, 102(1):123-128.

Vandenberg LN, Welshons WV, Vom Saal FS, Toutain PL, Myers JP: Should oral gavage be abandoned in toxicity testing of endocrine disruptors? Environmental health : a global access science source 2014, 13(1):46.

vom Saal FS, Welshons WV: Evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) can be accurately measured without contamination in human serum and urine, and that BPA causes numerous hazards from multiple routes of exposure. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 2014, 398(1-2):101-113.

Bhandari, R. Deem, S.L., Holliday, D.K., Jandegian, C.M., Kassotis, C.D., Nagel, S.C., Tillitt, D.E. vom Saal, F.S., and Rosenfeld, C.S. Effects of the environmental estrogenic contaminants bisphenol A and 17a-ethinyl estradiol on sexual development and adult behaviors in aquatic wildlife species. General and Comparative Endocrinology 398:101–113, 2014. DOI 10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.09.014

Vandenberg LN, Colborn T, Hayes TB, Heindel JJ, Jacobs DR, Lee DH, Myers JP, Shioda T, Soto AM, vom Saal FS et al: Regulatory decisions on endocrine disrupting chemicals should be based on the principles of endocrinology. Reproductive Toxicology 2013, 38:1-15.

Schug TT, Abagyan R, Blumberg B, Collins TJ, Crews D, Defur PL, Dickerson SM, Edwards TM, Gore AC, Guillette LJ et al: Designing endocrine disruption out of the next generation of chemicals. Green Chemistry 2013, 15(1):181-198.

Gioiosa L, Parmigiani S, vom Saal FS, Palanza P: The effects of bisphenol A on emotional behavior depend upon the timing of exposure, age and gender in mice. Hormones and Behavior 2013, 63(4):598-605.

Vandenberg LN, Hunt PA, Myers JP, Vom Saal FS: Human exposures to bisphenol A: Mismatches between data and assumptions. Reviews on Environmental Health 2013, 28(1):37-58.

Angle BM, Do RP, Ponzi D, Stahlhut RW, Drury BE, Nagel SC, Welshons WV, Besch-Williford CL, Palanza P, Parmigiani S et al: Metabolic disruption in male mice due to fetal exposure to low but not high doses of bisphenol A (BPA): Evidence for effects on body weight, food intake, adipocytes, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and glucose regulation. Reproductive Toxicology 2013, 42:256-268.

Vandenberg, L.N., Ehrlich, S., Belcher, S.M., Ben-Jonathan, N., Dolinoy, D.C., Hugo, E.S., Hunt, P.A., Newbold, R.R., Rubin, B.S., Saili, K.S., Soto, A.M., Wang, H-S., vom Saal, F.S. Low Dose Effects of Bisphenol A: An Integrated Review of In Vitro, Laboratory Animal and Epidemiology Studies. Endocrine Disruption 1:E1-E20, 2013. doi.org/10.4161/endo.26490

Do RP, Stahlhut RW, Ponzi D, vom Saal FS, Taylor JA: Non-monotonic dose effects of in utero exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on testicular and serum testosterone and anogenital distance in male mouse fetuses. Reproductive Toxicology 2012, 34(4):614-621.

Taylor JA, Richter CA, Suzuki A, Watanabe H, Iguchi T, Coser KR, Shioda T, vom Saal FS: Dose-Related Estrogen Effects on Gene Expression in Fetal Mouse Prostate Mesenchymal Cells. PLoS ONE 2012, 7(10), e48311

Nicholson TM, Ricke EA, Marker PC, Miano JM, Mayer RD, Timms BG, Vom Saal FS, Wood RW, Ricke WA: Testosterone and 17β-estradiol induce glandular prostatic growth, bladder outlet obstruction, and voiding dysfunction in male mice. Endocrinology 2012, 153(11):5556-5565.

Zoeller RT, Brown TR, Doan LL, Gore AC, Skakkebaek NE, Soto AM, Woodruff TJ, Vom Saal FS: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and public health protection: A statement of principles from the Endocrine Society. Endocrinology 2012, 153(9):4097-4110.

Vandenberg LN, Colborn T, Hayes TB, Heindel JJ, Jacobs DR, Lee DH, Shioda T, Soto AM, vom Saal FS, Welshons WV et al: Hormones and endocrine-disrupting chemicals: Low-dose effects and nonmonotonic dose responses. Endocrine Reviews 2012, 33(3):378-455.

vom Saal FS, Nagel SC, Coe BL, Angle BM, Taylor JA: The estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) and obesity. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 2012, 354(1-2):74-84.

Hanna CW, Bloom MS, Robinson WP, Kim D, Parsons PJ, Vom Saal FS, Taylor JA, Steuerwald AJ, Fujimoto VY: DNA methylation changes in whole blood is associated with exposure to the environmental contaminants, mercury, lead, cadmium and bisphenol A, in women undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF. Human Reproduction 2012, 27(5):1401-1410.

Schug TT, Vogel SA, Vandenberg LN, Braun JM, Hauser R, Taylor JA, Vom Saal FS, Heindel JJ: Bisphenol A. In: Dioxins and Health: Including Other Persistent Organic Pollutants and Endocrine Disruptors: Third Edition. 2012: 381-413.

vom Saal FS, Prins GS, Welshons WV: Report of very low real-world exposure to bisphenol A is unwarranted based on a lack of data and flawed assumptions. Toxicological Sciences 2012, 125(1):318-320.

Schug, T.T., Erlebacher, A., Leibowitz, S., Ma, L., Muglia, L.J., Rando, O.J., Rogers, J.M., Romero. R., vom Saal, F.S. and Wise, D.L. Fetal Programming and Environmental Exposures: Implications for Prenatal Care and Preterm Birth. Annals New York Acad Sci. 1276:37–46, 2012.

vom Saal, F.S., Coe, B.L., Angle, B.R. and Taylor, J.A. Disruption of development by environmental estrogens: Adult obesity and metabolic disease. In: Obesity: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology and Prevention, Vol 2, Editors: Debasis Bagchi and Harry G. Preuss, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 73-83, 2012.

vom Saal, F.S., Taylor, J.A., Palanza, P. and Parmigiani, S. New Approaches to Risk Evaluation for Chemicals of Emerging Concern (CECs). In: R. C. Ragaini, Editor, Proceedings of Conference: International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies, 44th Session,Erice, Sicily, August, 2011, World Scientific Publishers, Singapore, 566-578, 2012.

Zoeller RT, Brown TR, Doan LL, Gore AC, Skakkebaek NE, Soto AM, Woodruff TJ, vom Saal FS. Endocrine-disrupting Chemicals and Public Health Protection: A Statement of Principles from The Endocrine Society. Endocrinol. 153:4097-4110, 2012.

vom Saal, F.S. and Hunt, P.A. Opinion: FDA’s decision on BPA exposes Catch 22. Scientific American (http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/2012/06/11/opinion-fdas-decision-on-bpa-exposes-catch-22/), June 11, 2012.

Vandenberg, L.N., Colborn, T., Hayes, T.B., Heindel, J.J., Jacobs, D.R., Lee, D-H., Shioda, T., Soto, A.M., vom Saal, F.S., Welshons, W.V., Zoeller, R.T. and Myers, J.P. A paradigm shift in environmental chemical research: Understanding and expecting “low dose” effects and non-monotonic dose responses. Endocr. Rev. Online March, 2012.

Taylor, J.A., vom Saal, F.S., Welshons, W.V. Drury, B., Rottinghaus, G., Hunt, P.A., Toutain, P-L. and Laffont, C.M. Bisphenol A in thermal paper receipts. Environ. Health Perspect. 120:A15, 2012.

Schug, T.T., Vogel, S.A., Vandenberg, L.N., Braun, J., Hauser, R., Taylor, J.A., vom Saal, F.S., and Heindel, J.J. Bisphenol A. In: Dioxins and Health: Including Other Persistent Organic Pollutants and Endocrine Disruptors. 3rd Edition. Edited by: A. Schecter, Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 381-413, 2012.12.

vom Saal, F.S., Prins, G.S. and Welshons, W.V. Report of very low real world exposure to bisphenol A is unwarranted based on a lack of data and flawed assumptions. Toxicol. Sci. 125:318-320, 2012.

vom Saal, F.S., Coe, B.L., Angle, B.R. and Taylor, J.A. Disruption of development by environmental estrogens: Adult obesity and metabolic disease. In: Obesity: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology and Prevention, Vol 2, Editors: Debasis Bagchi and Harry G. Preuss, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 73-83, 2012.

Lankford, D.M. and vom Saal, F.S. Development of a writing intensive capstone course to facilitate the integration and communication of complex issues in biology. J. College Science Teaching 41(4):18-26, 2012.

vom Saal, F.S. Adverse Health Effects of Bisphenol A (BPA): Implications for the use of BPA in hemodialyzers and other medical equipment. Online: http://www.spektrum-der-dialyse.de/themenbereiche/dialyse. Spektrum der Dialyse & Apherese. 2011.

Taylor, J.A., Richter, C.A., Ruhlen, R.L. and vom Saal, F.S. Estrogenic chemicals and drugs: Mechanisms for effects on the developing male urogenital system. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 127:83– 95, 2011.

Bloom, M. S., F. S. vom Saal, D. Kim, J. A. Taylor, J. D. Lamb and V. Y. Fujimoto. Serum unconjugated bisphenol A concentrations in men may influence embryo quality indicators during in vitro fertilization.Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 32:319-23, 2011.

Bloom, M.S., Kim, D., vom Saal, F.S., Taylor, J.A., Cheng, G., Lamb, J.D., and Fujimoto, V.Y. Bisphenol A exposure reduces the estradiol response to gonadotropin stimulation during in vitro fertilization. Fertil. Steril. 96:672-677 e2, 2011.

Sieli, P.T., Jašarevi?, E., Warzak, D.A., Mao, J., Ellersieck, M.R., Liao, C., Kannan, K., Collet, S., Toutain, P.L., vom Saal, F.S. and Rosenfeld, C.S. Comparison of serum bisphenol A concentrations in mice exposed to bisphenol A through the diet versus oral bolus exposure. Environ. Health Perspect. 119:1260-1265, 2011.

Novak, P.J.; Arnold, W.A.; Blazer, V.S.; Halden, R.U.; Klaper, R.D.; Kolpin, D.W.; Kriebel, D.; Love, N.G.; Martinovic, D.; Patisaul, H.B.; Snyder, S.A.; vom Saal, F.S.; Weisbrod, A.V.; Swackhamer, D.L. On the Need for a National (US) Research Program to Elucidate the Potential Risks to Human Health and the Environment Posed by Contaminants of Emerging Concern. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45:3829–3830, 2011.

Novak, P.J., Blazer, V.S., Halden, R.U., Klaper, R.D., Kolpin, D.W., Kriebel, D., Love, N.G., Martinovi?-Weigelt, D., Patisaul, H.B., Snyder, S.A., vom Saal, F.S., Weisbrod, A.V., Swackhamer, D.L. Assessing contaminant risk on a global scale. Nature 471:578 2011.

Ruhlen, RL, Taylor, JA, Mao, J, Kirkpatrick, J, Welshons, WV and vom Saal, FS. Choice of animal feed can alter fetal steroid levels and mask developmental effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. J Develop Origins Health Disease 2:36-48, 2011.

Fujimoto, V.Y., Kim, D., vom Saal, F.S., Lamb, J.D., Taylor, J.A., and Bloom, M.S. Serum unconjugated bisphenol A concentrations in women adversely influence oocyte quality during in vitro fertilization. Fertil. Steril. 95:1816-1819, 2011.

Taylor, J.A., vom Saal, F.S., Welshons, W.V., Drury, B., Rottinghaus, G., Hunt, P.A., Toutain, P.L., Laffont, C.M. and VandeVoort, C.A.. Similarity of bisphenol A pharmacokinetics in rhesus monkeys and mice: Relevance for human exposure. Environ. Health Perspect. 119:422-430, 2011.

Ela, W.P., D.L. Sedlak, M. Barlaz, H. Henry, D. Muir, D. Swackhamer, E.J. Weber, R.G. Arnold, L. Ferguson, J. Field, E. Furlong, J.P. Giesy, R. U. Halden, T. Henry, R. Hites, K. Hornbuckle, P. Howard, R.G. Luthy, A. Meyer, A.E. Sáez, F.S. vom Saal, C. Vulpe, and M.R. Wiesner. Identifying the next generation of superfund and hazardous waste site contaminants. Environ. Health Perspect. 119:6-10, doi:10.1289/ehp.1002497, 2011.

vom Saal, F.S., Akingbemi, B., Belcher, S., Crain, D., Crews, D., Guidice, L. et al. Flawed Experimental Design Reveals the Need for Guidelines Requiring Appropriate Positive Controls in Endocrine Disruption Research. Toxicological Sciences 115: 612-613, 2010.

vom Saal, F.S., Akingbemi, B., Belcher, S., Crain, D., Crews, D., Guidice, L. et al. Flawed Experimental Design Reveals the Need for Guidelines Requiring Appropriate Positive Controls in Endocrine Disruption Research. Toxicological Sciences 115: 612-613, 2010.

vom Saal, F.S., Taylor, J.A., Palanza, P. and Parmigiani, S. The high-volume hormonally active chemical bisphenol A: Human exposure, health hazards and need to find alternatives. In: R. C. Ragaini, Editor, Proceedings of Conference: ¬International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies, 42th Session, Erice, Sicily, August, 2009, World Scientific Publishers, Singapore, pp. 763-772, 2010.

Myers, J.P., Zoeller, T.J. and vom Saal, F.S. A clash of old and new scientific concepts in toxicity, with important implications for public health. Environ. Health Perspect. 117:1652–1655, 2009.

Thompson, R.C., Swan, S.H., Moore, C. and vom Saal, F.S. Our plastic age. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 364:1973-1976, 2009.

Thompson, R.C., Moore, C., vom Saal, F.S. and Swan, S.H. Plastics, the environment and human health: Current consensus and future trends. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 364: 2153-2166, 2009.

Heindel, J.J. and vom Saal, F.S. Role of nutrition and environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals during the perinatal period on the aetiology of obesity. Mol. Cell Endocrinol. 304:90-96, 2009.

Talsness, C.E., Andrade, A.J.M., Kuriyama, S.N., Taylor, J.A. and vom Saal, F.S. Components of plastic: experimental studies in animals and relevance for human health. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 364:2079-2096, 2009

Myers, JP, vom Saal, FS, Akingbemi, BT, Arizono, K, Belcher, S, Colborn, T, Chahoud, I, Crain, DA, Farabollini, F, Guillette, LJ, Jr., Hassold, T, Ho, SM, Hunt, PA, Iguchi, T, Jobling, S, Kanno, J, Laufer, H, Marcus, M, McLachlan, JA, Nadal, A, Oehlmann, J, Olea, N, Palanza, P, Parmigiani, S, Rubin, BS, Schoenfelder, G, Sonnenschein, C, Soto, AM, Talsness, CE, Taylor, JA, Vandenberg, LN, Vandenbergh, JG, Vogel, S, Watson, CS, Welshons, WV and Zoeller, RT (2009). Why public health agencies cannot depend on good laboratory practices as a criterion for selecting data: the case of bisphenol A. Environ. Health Perspect. 117:309-315, 2009.

vom Saal, F.S. and Myers, J.P. Bisphenol A and Risk of Metabolic Disorders. JAMA 300(11):1353-1355, 2008.

Palanza, P.L., Gioiosa, L. Parmigiani, S. and vom Saal, F.S. Effects of developmental exposure to bisphenol A on brain and behavior in mice. Environ. Res. 108(2):150-157. 2008.

vom Saal, F.S., Parmigiani, S., Palanza, P.L., Everett, L.G. and Ragaini, R. The plastic world: sources, amounts, ecological impacts and effects on development, reproduction, brain and behavior in aquatic and terrestrial animals and humans. Environ. Res. 108(2):127-130, 2008.

Myers, J.P. and vom Saal, F.S. Should public health standards for endocrine-disrupting compounds be based upon 16th Century dogma or modern endocrinology? San Francisco Medicine 81(1): 30-31, 2008.

Taylor, J.A., Welsons W.V. and vom Saal, F.S. No effect of route of exposure (oral; subcutaneous injection) on plasma bisphenol A throughout 24 hr after administration in neonatal female mice. Reprod. Toxicol. 25:169-176, 2008.

Coe, B.L., Kirkpatrick, J.R., Taylor, J.A. and vom Saal, F.S. A new “crowded uterine horn” mouse model for examining the relationship between fetal growth and adult obesity. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 102:162-167, 2008.

Heindel, J.J. and vom Saal, F.S. Meeting Report: Batch-to-Batch Variability in Estrogenic Activity in Commercial Animal Diets—Importance and Approaches for Laboratory Animal Research. Environ. Health Perspect. 116:389-393, 2008.

Ruhlen, R.L., Howdeshell, K.L., Mao, J., Taylor, J.A., Bronson, F.H., Newbold, R.R., Welshons, W.V. and vom Saal, F.S. Low phytoestrogen levels in feed increase fetal serum estradiol resulting in the “fetal estrogenization syndrome” and obesity in CD-1 mice. Environ. Health Perspect. 116:322-328, 2008.

vom Saal, F.S., Akingbemi, B.T., Belcher, S.M., Birnbaum, L.S., Crain, D.A., Farabollini, F., Guillette, L.J., Hauser, R., Heindel J.J., Ho, S-M. et al. Chapel Hill expert pamel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure. Reprod. Toxicol. 24(2):131-138, 2007.

vom Saal, F.S. Could hormone residues be involved? Human Reprod. 22:1503-1505, 2007.

Richter, C.R., Birnbaum, L.S., Farabollini, F., Newbold, R.R., Rubin, B.S., Talsness, C.E., Vandenbergh, J.G., Walser-Kuntz, D.R. and vom Saal, F.S. In vivo effects of bisphenol A in laboratory rodent studies. Reprod. Toxicol. 24:199-224, 2007.

Richter, C.A., Taylor, J.A., Ruhlen, R.R., Welshons, W.V. and vom Saal, F.S. Estradiol and bisphenol A stimulate androgen receptor and estrogen receptor gene expression in fetal mouse prostate cells. Environ. Health Perspect. 115:902-908, 2007.

vom Saal, F.S. Bisphenol A Eliminates Brain and Behavior Sex Dimorphisms in Mice. How Low Can You Go? Endocrinol. 147:3679-3680, 2006.

Welshons, W.V., Nagel, S.C. and vom Saal, F.S. Large effects from small exposures: III. Mechanisms mediating responses to the low doses of the plastic monomer bisphenol A. Endocrinol. 147:S56-S69, 2006.

vom Saal, F.S. and Welshons, W.V. Large effects from small exposures: II. The importance of positive controls in low-dose research on bisphenol A. Environmental Research 100:50-76, 2006.

Weltje, L., vom Saal, F.S. and Oehlmann, J. Reproductive stimulation by low doses of xenoestrogens contrasts with the view of hormesis as an adaptive response. Human and Experimental Toxicology 24:1-7, 2005.

vom Saal, F.S. Low-dose bisphenol A: confirmed by an extensive literature. Chemistry and Industry 7:14-15, 2005.

vom Saal, F.S. and Hughes, C. An extensive new literature concerning low-dose effects of bisphenol A shows the need for a new risk assessment. Environ. Health Perspect. 113:926-933, 2005.

Timms, B.G., K.L. Howdeshell, L. Barton, S. Bradley, C.A. Richter and F.S. vom Saal. Estrogenic chemicals in plastic and oral contraceptives disrupt development of the fetal mouse prostate and urethra. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 102: 7014-7019, 2005.

vom Saal, F.S., Richter, C.A., Ruhlen, R.R., Taylor, J.A., Rottinghaus, G.E. and Welshons, W.V. Commercial animal Feed: Variability in estrogenic activity and effects on body weight in mice. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 73:474-475, 2005.

vom Saal, F.S., Nagel, S.C., Timms, B.G. and Welshons, W.V. Implications for human health of the extensive bisphenol A literature showing adverse effects at low doses: A response to attempts to mislead the public. Toxicology, 212:244-252, 2005.

vom Saal, F.S., Richter, C.A. Ruhlen, R.R., Nagel, S.C., Timms, B.G. and Welshons, W.V. Importance of appropriate controls, animal feed and animal models in interpreting results from low-dose studies of bisphenol A. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 73: 140-145, 2005.

Richter, C.A., Timms, B.G. and vom Saal, F.S. Prostate Development: Mechanisms for opposite effects of low and high doses of estrogenic chemicals. In: R.K. Naz, ed. Endocrine Disruptors (2nd Edition): Effects on Male and Female Reproductive Systems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 379-410, 2005.

Myers, J.P., Guillette, L.J., Palanza, P., Parmigiani, S., Swan, S.H. and vom Saal, F.S. The emerging science of endocrine disruption. R. C. Ragaini, Editor, Proceedings of Conference: International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies, 30th Session, Erice, Sicily, August, 2003, World Scientific Publishers, Singapore, pp. 105-121, 2004.

vom Saal, F.S., Richter, C.A., Ruhlen, R.R. Nagel, S.C. and Welshons, W.V. Disruption of laboratory experiments due to leaching of bisphenol a from polycarbonate cages and bottles and uncontrolled variability in components of animal feed. Proceedings from the International Workshop on Development of Science-Based Guidelines for Laboratory Animal Care, National Academies Press, Washington DC, 65-69, 2004.

Nagel, S.C. and vom Saal, F.S. Endocrine control of sexual differentiation: Effects of the maternal-fetal environment and endocrine disrupting chemicals. In: Principles of Sex-Based Physiology, Ed. V. Miller and M. Hay. Elsevier, pp. 15-37, 2003.

Howdeshell, KL Peterman, P.H., Judy, B.M., Taylor, J.A., Orazio, C.E., Ruhlen, R.L., vom Saal, F.S. and Welshons, W.V. Bisphenol a is released from used polycarbonate animal cages into water at room temperature. Environ. Health Perspect, 111:1180-1187, 2003.

Rice, C., Birnbaum, L.S., Cogliano, J., Mahaffey, K., Needham, L., Rogan, W. and. vom Saal, F.S. Exposure assessment for endocrine disruptors: some considerations in the design of studies. Environ. Health Perspect., 111:1683-1690, 2003.

Parmigiani, S., Palanza, P., Colborn, T. and vom Saal, F.S. Exposure to very low doses of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during fetal life permanently alters brain development and behavior in animals and humans. R. C. Ragaini, Editor, Proceedings of Conference: International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies, 27th Session, Erice, Sicily, August, 2002, World Scientific Publishers, Singapore, pp. 293-308, 2003.

Welshons, W.V., Thayer, K.S., Taylor, J., Judy, B. and vom Saal, F.S. Large effects from small exposures: I. Mechanisms for endocrine-disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity. Environ. Health Perspect, 111: 994-1006, 2003.

Alworth, L., Howdeshell, K.L., Ruhlen, R. And vom Saal, F.S. Uterine responsiveness to estradiol and DNA methylation are altered by fetal exposure to diethylstilbestrol and methoxychlor in CD-1 mice: Effects of low versus high doses. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 183:10-22, 2002.

Palanza, P., Howdeshell, K.L., Parmigiani, S. and vom Saal, F.S. Exposure to a low dose of bisphenol A during fetal life or in adulthood alters maternal behavior in mice. Environ. Health Perspect. 110:415-422, 2002.

Timms, B.G., Peterson, R.E. and vom Saal, F.S. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin interacts with endogenous estradiol to disrupt prostate gland morphogenesis in male rat fetuses. Toxicological Sciences 67:264-274, 2002.

Ottinger, M.A. and vom Saal, F.S. Impact of Environmental Endocrine Disruptors on Sexual Differentiation in Birds and Mammals. In: Hormones, Brain and Behavior, Ed. D. Pfaff, Academic Press, New York, pp 325-383, 2002.

Palanza, P. Morellini, F., Paarmigiani, S. and vom Saal, F. Ethological methods to study the effects of maternal exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupters: A study with methoxychlor. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 24:55-69, 2002.

Palanza, P., Parmigiani, S. and vom Saal, F.S. Effects of prenatal exposure to low doses of diethylstilbestrol, o,p’DDT and methoxychlor on postnatal growth and neurobehavioral development in male and female mice. Horm. Behav. 252-265, 2001.

Thayer, K.A., R. Ruhlen, R., Howdeshell, K.L., Buchanan, D., Cooke, P.S., Welshons, W.V., Haseman, J. and vom Saal, F.S. Altered prostate growth and daily sperm production in male mice exposed prenatally to subclinical doses of 17α- ethinyl estradiol. Human Reproduction 16:988-996, 2001.

vom Saal, F.S. and Welshons, W.V. NIH panel confirms that endocrine disrupting chemicals cause effects at very low doses. Risk Policy Report 7(11):47-50, November 30, 2000. Inside Washington Publishers. Source: Risk Policy Report via InsideEPA.com

Wang, M-S. and vom Saal, F.S. Maternal age influences traits in offspring. Nature, 407:469-470, 2000.

Howdeshell, K.L. and vom Saal, F.S. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A: Interaction with endogenous estradiol during pregnancy in mice. American Zoologist 40: 429-437, 2000.

Howdeshell, K.L., Hotchkiss, A.K., Thayer, K.A., Vandenbergh, J.G. and vom Saal, F.S. Exposure to bisphenol A advances puberty. Nature 401:763-764, 1999.

Palanza, P. Morellini, F., Parmigiani, S. and vom Saal, F.S. Prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals: Effects on behavioral development. Neurosci. Biobeh. Rev. 23:1011-1027, 1999.

Bigsby, R. Chapin, R., Daston,G., Davis, B., Gorski, J., Gray, E., Howdeshell, K. Zoeller, T. and vom Saal, F. Evaluating the effects of endocrine disruptors on endocrine function during development. Environ. Health Perspect. 107 (Suppl 4):613-618, 1999.

Welshons, W.V., Nagel, S.C., Kristina A. Thayer, K.A., Judy, B.M. and vom Saal, F.S. Development of in vitro assays to predict activity of xenoestrogens in animals: fetal exposure to methoxychlor and other xenoestrogens increases adult prostate size in mice. Tox. Ind.Health, 15:12-25, 1999.

vom Saal, F.S., Clark, M.M., Galef, B.G., Drickamer, L.C. and Vandenbergh, J.G. The intrauterine position (IUP) phenomenon. In: Encyclopedia of Reproduction. Eds E. Knobil and J. Neill. Academic Press, New York, Volume 2, pp. 893-900, 1999.

Timms, B.G., Petersen, S.L. and vom Saal, F.S. Prostate gland growth during development is stimulated in both male and female rat fetuses by intrauterine proximity to female fetuses. J. Urol.161:1694-1701, 1999.

vom Saal, F.S. and Timms, B.G. The role of natural and manmade estrogens in prostate development. In: R.K. Naz, ed. Endocrine Disruptors: Effects on Male and Female Reproductive Systems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 307-327, 1999.

Nagel, S.C., vom Saal, F.S. And Welshons, W.W. Developmental effects of estrogenic chemicals are predicted by an in vitro assay incorporating modification of cell uptake by serum. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 69:343-357, 1999.

Palanza, P., Parmigiani, S., Huifen Liu, H. and vom Saal, F.S. Prenatal exposure to low doses of the estrogenic chemicals diethylstilbestrol and o,p’-DDT alters aggressive behavior of male and female house mice. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 64:665-672, 1999.

vom Saal, F.S., Cooke, P.S., Palanza, P., Thayer, K.A., Nagel, S., Parmigiani, S. and Welshons, W.V. A physiologically based approach to the study of bisphenol A and other estrogenic chemicals on the size of reproductive organs, daily sperm production and behavior. Toxicol. Industrial Health, 14:239-260, 1998.

Welshons, W.W., Nagel, S.C., and vom Saal, F.S. Response to The Importance of Protocol Design and Data Reporting to Research on Endocrine Disruption. Environ. Health Perspect. 106: 316-317, 1998.

Nagel, S.C., vom Saal, F.S. And Welshons, W.V. The effective free fraction of estradiol and xenoestrogens in human serum measured by whole cell uptake assays: Physiology of delivery modifies estrogenic activity. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 217:300-309, 1998.

vom Saal, F.S. and Sheehan, D.M. Challenging risk assessment. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, 13(3):11-18, 1998.

Parmigiani, S., Palanza, P. and vom Saal, F.S. Ethotoxicology: An evolutionary approach to the study of environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals. J. Toxicol. Industrial Health 14:333-340, 1998.

Nagel, S.C., vom Saal, F.S., Thayer, K.A., Dhar, M.G., Boechler, M. and Welshons, W.V. Relative binding affinity-serum modified access (RBA-SMA) assay predicts the relative in vivo bioactivity of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A and octylphenol. Environ. Health Perspect. 105:70-76, 1997.

vom Saal, F.S., Timms, B.G., Montano, M.M., Palanza, P. Thayer, K.A., Nagel, S.C., Dhar, M.D., Ganjam, V.K., Parmigiani, S. and Welshons, W.V. Prostate enlargement in mice due to fetal exposure to low doses of estradiol or diethylstilbestrol and opposite effects at high doses. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 94:2056-2061, 1997.

Welshons, W.V., vom Saal, F.S. and Nagel, S.C. Bisphenol A in food cans: An Update. Environ. Health Perspect.105:571-572, 1997.

Sheehan, D.M. and vom Saal, F.S. Low dose effects of hormones: A challenge for risk assessment. Risk Policy Report 4(9) 31-39, 1997.

vom Saal, F.S. Getting to the truth: What we know and don’t know about the hazards of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Pesticides and You 17:9-16, 1997.

Walker, S.E., Keisler, L.W., Caldwell, C.W., Kier, A.B. and vom Saal, F.S. Effects of altered prenatal hormonal environment on expression of autoimmune disease in NZB/NZW mice. Environ. Health Perspect. 104:815-821, 1996.

vom Saal, F.S. Spirituality and Sustainability: Man-Made Chemicals and Health of the Unborn. 1996.

Palanza, P., Parmigiani, S. and vom Saal, F.S. Correlation between anogenital distance at birth, maternal aggression and stimulus characteristics of wild female mice. Physiol. Behav. 58: 827-835, 1995.

vom Saal, F.S. Environmental estrogenic chemicals: Their impact on embryonic development. Human Ecol. Risk Assess (HERA) 1(2):3-15, 1995.

vom Saal, F.S., Franks, P., Boechler, M., Palanza, P. and Parmigiani, S. Nest defense in highly aggressive wild canadian house mice: Effect of presence of the stud male. Physiol. Behav., 58:669-678, 1995.

Keisler, L.W., vom Saal, F.S., Keisler, D.H., Rudeen, P.K. and Walker, S.E. Aberrant hormone balance in fetal autoimmune NZB/W mice following prenatal exposure to testosterone excess or the androgen blocker flutamide. Biol. Reprod. 53:1190-1197, 1995.

Montano, M.M., Welshons, W.V. and vom Saal, F.S. Free estradiol in serum and brain uptake of estradiol during fetal and neonatal sexual differentiation in female rats. Biol. Reprod., 53:1198-1207, 1995.

Drickamer, L.C., vom Saal, F.S., Marriner, L.M. and Clover, C. Anogenital distance and aggression in male house mice (Mus domesticus). Aggressive Behav., 21:301-309, 1995.

vom Saal, F.S., Nagel, S.C., Palanza, P., Boechler, M., Parmigiani, S. Welshons, W. Estrogenic pesticides: binding relative to estradiol in MCF-7 cells and effects of exposure during fetal life on subsequent territorial behavior in male mice. Tox. Let. 77:343-350, 1995.

vom Saal, F.S. Genetic, Hormonal and Environmental Factors that Influence Reproductive Traits in Mice. 1994

Even, M.D, Laughlin, M.H., Krause, G.F. and vom Saal, F.S. Blood flow to uterine segments and placentae differs as a function of uterine location, side, and fetal sex in pregnant rats. J. Reprod. Fertil., 102:245-252, 1994.

vom Saal, F. The role of social, religious and medical practices in the neglect, abuse, abandonment and killing of infants. In: Infanticide and Parental Care. S. Parmigiani and F. vom Saal (Eds). Harwood Academic Press, London, 43-72, 1994.

Palanza, P., Parmigiani, S. and vom Saal, F.S. Maternal aggression toward infanticidal males of different social status in wild house mice. Aggressive Behavior 20:267-274, 1994.

vom Saal, F.S., Finch, C.E. and Nelson, J.F. Natural history and mechanisms of aging in humans, laboratory rodents and other selected vertebrates. In: Physiology of Reproduction, E. Knobil, J. Neill and D. Pfaff (Eds.), Raven Press, New York, 2nd edition, Vol 2, pp 1213-1314, 1994.

Palanza, P., Parmigiani, S. and vom Saal, F.S. Male urinary cues stimulate intrasexual aggression and urine marking in wild female mice. Animal Behaviour 48:245-247, 1994.

Perrigo, G., Belvin, E. and vom Saal, F. Social inhibition of infanticide in male house mice. Ecol. Ethol. Evol. 5:181-185, 1993.

Perrigo, G. and vom Saal, F. Behavioral Cycles and the Neural Timing of Infanticide and Parental Behavior in Male House Mice. 1993

Colborn, T., vom Saal, F.S. and Soto, A.M. Developmental effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans. Environ. Health Perspectives 101:378-384,1993.

Montano, M., Wang, M. vom Saal, F. Sex difference in serum concentrations of corticosterone in mouse fetuses is mediated by differential placental transport from the mother and eliminated by maternal adrenalectomy of stress. J. Reprod. Fertil. 99: 283-290, 1993.

Nonneman, D.J., Ganjam, V.K., Welshons, W.V., vom Saal, F.S. Intrauterine position effects on steroid metabolism and steroid receptors of reproductive organs in male mice. Biol. Reprod. 47:723-729, 1992.

Perrigo, G., Belvin, E. and vom Saal, F. Time and sex in the male mouse: Temporal regulation of infanticide and parental behavior. Chronobiol. Int., 9:421-433, 1992.

Clark, M.M., vom Saal, F.S. and Galef, B.G. Intrauterine positions and testosterone levels of adult male gerbils are correlated. Physiol. Behav. 51:957-960, 1992.

vom Saal, F.S. and Dhar, M. D. Blood flow in the uterine loop artery and loop vein is bi-driectional in the mouse: Implications for intrauterine transport of steroids. Physiol. Behav., 52: 163-171, 1992.

Even, M.D., Dhar, M. and vom Saal, F.S. Transport of steroids between fetuses via amniotic fluid in relation to the intrauterine position phenomenon in rats. J. Reprod. Fertil. 96:709-716, 1992.

Even, M. and vom Saal, F. Seminal vesicle and preputial gland response to steroids in adult male mice is influenced by prior intrauterine position. Physiol. Behav., 51:11-16, 1991.

Montano, M., Wang, M., Even, M. and vom Saal, F. Serum corticosterone in fetal mice: Sex differences, circadian changes, and effect of maternal stress. Physiol. Behav. 50: 323-329, 1991.

Keisler, L., vom Saal, F., Keisler, D. and Walker, S. Hormonal manipulation of the prenatal environment alters reproductive morphology and increases longevity in autoimmune NZB/Wmice. Biol. Reprod. 44: 707-716, 1991.

vom Saal, F., Even, M. and D. Quadagno, D. Effects of maternal stress on puberty, fertility and aggressive behavior of female mice. Physiol. Behav., 49: 1073-1078, 1991.

Perrigo, G., Belvin, E. and vom Saal, F. Individual variation in neural timing of infanticide and parental behaviour in male mice. Physiol. Behav. 50: 287-296, 1991.

Rohde-Parfet, K., Lamberson, W. Rieke, A., Cantley, T. Ganjam, V., vom Saal, F. and Day, B. Intrauterine position effects in male and female swine: subsequent survivability, growth rate, morphology and semen characteristics. J. Anim. Sci., 68:179-185, 1990.

Perrigo, G., Bryant, W. and vom Saal, F. A unique neural timing system prevents male mice from harming their own offspring. Anim. Behav., 39:535-539, 1990.

vom Saal, F., Quadagno, D., Even, M., Keisler, L., Keisler, D., and Khan, S. Paradoxical effects of maternal stress on fetal steroids and postnatal reproductive traits in female mice from different intrauterine positions. Biol. Reprod., 43:751-761, 1990.

vom Saal, F.S. Prenatal gonadal influences on mouse sociosexual behaviours. In M. Haug, P.F. Brain, and C. Aron, (Eds.). Heterotypical Behaviour in Man and Animals. Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 42-70, 1990.

Perrigo, G., Belvin, L. and vom Saal, F. Humane behavioral assays in the laboratory: An alternative test for assessing how rodents behave toward young. Humane Innovations and Alternatives in Animal Experimentation: 4: 208-209, 1990.

vom Saal, F.S. Sexual differentiation in litter-bearing mammals: influence of sex of adjacent fetuses in utero. J. Anim sci. 67:1824-1840, 1989.

vom Saal, F.S. The production of and sensitivity to cues that delay puberty and prolong subsequent oestrous cycles in female mice are influenced by prior intrauterine position. J. Reprod. Fert. 86:457-471, 1989.

Perrigo, G. and vom Saal, F. Mating-induced regulation of infanticide in male mice: Fetal programming of a unique stimulus-response. In: Ethoexperimental Approaches to the Study of Behavior. Edited by R. Blanchard, P. Brain, D. Blanchard and S. Parmigiani. Kluwer Academic Pub., Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 320-333, 1989.

Perrigo, G., Bryant, W. and vom Saal, F. The use of live pups in a humane, injury-free test for infanticidal behaviour in male mice. Anim. Behav. 38:897-904, 1989.

Perrigo, G., Bryant, W. and vom Saal, F. Fetal, hormonal and experiential factors influencing the mating-induced regulation of infanticide in male house mice. Physiol. Behav. 46: 121-128, 1989.

vom Saal, F. and Finch, C. Reproductive senescence: Phenomena and mechanisms in mammals and selected vertebrates. In: Physiology of Reproduction, E. Knobil, J. Neill and D. Pfaff (Eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 2351-2413, 1988.

vom Saal, F. Perinatal testosterone exposure has opposite effects on intermale aggression and infanticide in mice. In: House Mouse Aggression. Edited by P. Brain and S. Parmigiani. Gordon and Breach Science Pub., pp. 179-204, 1988.

McCarthy, M. and vom Saal, F. Inhibition of infanticide after mating in wild male house mice. Physiol. Behav. 36:203-209, 1986.

McCarthy, M., Bare, J. and vom Saal, F. Infanticide and parental behavior in wild female house mice (Mus musculus): Effects of ovariectomy, adrenalectomy, and administration of oxytocin and prostaglandin. Physiol. Behav. 36:17-23, 1986.

McCarthy, M. and vom Saal, F. Infanticide by virgin CF-1 and wild male house mice (Mus musculus): Effects of age, prolonged isolation and testing procedure. Develop. Psychobiol. 19:279-290, 1986.

vom Saal, F. Time-contingent change in infanticide and parental behavior induced by ejaculation in male mice. Physiol. Behav. 34:7-15, 1985.

vom Saal, F. and Moyer, C. Prenatal effects on reproductive capacity during aging in female mice. Biol. Reprod. 32:1116-1126, 1985.

McCarthy, M. and vom Saal, F. The influence of reproductive state on infanticide by wild female house mice. Physiol. Behav. 35:843-849, 1985.

vom Saal, F. Proximate and ultimate causes of infanticide in male house mice. In: Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary Aspects, G. Hausfater and S. Blaffer-Hrdy (Eds.), Aldine Pub., 1984, pp. 401-424.

vom Saal, F. The intrauterine position phenomenon: Effects on physiology, aggressive behavior and population dynamics in house mice. In: Prog. Clin. Biol. Res., Vol. 169, Biological Perspectives on Aggression, K. Flannelly, R. Blanchard and D. Blanchard (Eds.), Liss, New York, pp. 135-179, 1984.

Rines, J. and vom Saal, F. Fetal effects on sexual behavior and aggression in young and old female mice treated with estrogen and progesterone. Horm. Behav. 18:117-129, 1984.

vom Saal, F., Grant, W., McMullen, C. and Laves, K. High fetal estrogen titers correlate with enhanced adult sexual performance and decreased aggression in male mice. Science 220:1306-1309, 1983.

vom Saal, F. Variation in infanticide and parental behavior in male mice due to prior intrauterine proximity to female fetuses: Elimination by prenatal stress. Physiol. Behavior. 30:675-681, 1983.

vom Saal, F. Models of early hormonal effects on intrasex aggression in mice. In: Hormones and Aggressive Behavior, B. Svare (Ed.), Plenum, New York, pp. 197-222, 1983.

vom Saal, F. The interaction of circulating estrogens and androgens in regulating mammalian sexual differentiation. In: Hormones and Behavior in Higher Vertebrates, J. Balthazart, E. Prove and R. Giles (Eds.), Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 159-177, 1983.

vom Saal, F. Intrauterine positioning of male and female fetuses influences prenatal hormone titers and adult behavior. In: Proceedings of the Fifth World Congress of Sexology, Exerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1982.

vom Saal, F. and Howard L. The regulation of infanticide and parental behavior: Implications for reproductive success in male mice. Science 215:1270-1272, 1982.

vom Saal, F., Pryor, S. and Bronson, F. Effects of prior intrauterine position and housing on oestrous cycle length in adolescent mice. J. Reprod. Fert. 62:33-37, 1981.

vom Saal, F. Variation in phenotype due to random intrauterine positioning of male and female fetuses in rodents. J. Reprod. Fert. 62: 633-650, 1981.

vom Saal, F. The intrauterine position phenomenon in mice. In: Biology of Aggression, P. Brain and D. Benton (Eds.), Sijthoff and Noordhoff, Netherlands, pp. 231-236, 1981.

vom Saal, F. and Bronson, F. Sexual characteristics of adult female mice are correlated with their blood testosterone levels during prenatal development. Science 208:597-599, 1980.

vom Saal, F. and Bronson, F. Variation in length of the estrous cycle in mice due to former intrauterine proximity to male fetuses. Biol. Reprod. 22:777-780, 1980.

Bronson, F. and vom Saal, F. The preovulatory surge in luteinizing hormone secretion in mice: Variation in magnitude due to ambient light intensity. Biol. Reprod. 20:1005-1008, 1979.

Bronson, F. and vom Saal, F. Control of the release of luteinizing hormone by steroids in the mouse. Endocrinol. 104:1247-1255, 1979.

vom Saal, F. Prenatal exposure to androgen influences morphology and aggressive behavior of male and female mice. Horm. Behav. 12: 1-11, 1979.

vom Saal, F., Timmons, R. and Hamilton, L. Effects of diet and dietary experience on body weight regulation in rats with septal lesions. Physiol. Psychol. 6:306-313, 1978.

vom Saal, F. and Bronson, F. In utero proximity of female mouse fetuses to males: Effect on reproductive performance during later life. Biol. Reprod. 19:842-853, 1978.

vom Saal, F. Cyproterone acetate exposure during gestation in mice retards fetal growth. Physiol. Behav. 21:515-517, 1978.

Gandelman, R. and vom Saal, F. Exposure to early androgen attenuates androgen-induced pup-killing in male and female mice. Behav. Biol. 20:252-260, 1977.

vom Saal, F., Svare, B. and Gandelman, R. Time of neonatal androgen exposure influences length of testosterone treatment required to induce aggression in adult male and female mice. Behav. Biol. 17:391-397, 1976.

vom Saal, F., Gandelman, R. and Svare, B. Aggression in male and female mice: Evidence for changed neural sensitivity in response to neonatal but not adult androgen exposure. Physiol. Behav. 17:53-57, 1976.

vom Saal, F., Hamilton, L. and Gandelman, R. Faster acquisition of an olfactory discrimination following septal lesions in male albino rats. Physiol. Behav. 14:697-703, 1975.

Gandelman, R. and vom Saal, F. Pup-killing in mice: The effects of gonadectomy and testosterone administration. Physiol. Behav. 15:647-651, 1975.

Honors & Awards

Selected honors and awards

Environmental Health Hero Award, CleanMed Association 2010

University of Missouri Alumni Association Faculty Award 2010

Heinz Foundation Award in Environmental Science 2010

Mystical Seven Honor Society 2008

Curators’ Professor-University of Missouri 2007

Upstream Award - Jennifer Altman Foundation 2006

Millennium Award - Indian Institute for Sustainable Future 2001

Elected Fellow - AAAS 1999

Elected Honorary Member - Italian Academy of Science 1990